Muhammadiyah, the history and structure
Muhammadiya is an Islamic social organization in Indoensia. Muhammadiyah refers to the name of Prophet Muhammad pbuh and it well known as the follower of him. Muhammadiah supposed to neutralize the Islamic proselyte from any deviations that generally contaminated on the name of adaptations. Muhammadiyah specify its missionary in the educational line and building the Islamic base civilization. In its movement Muhammadiyah refers to qur’anic verse bellow:
وَلْتَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
“And let there be such a group among you, then may call towards goodness and command what is just and forbid evil. And the very same attained to their goals”.
The official site of Muhammadiyah mentioned that Muhammadiyah is established in Kauman, Yogyakarta 18 November 1912/8 Dzulhijjah 1330, by Muhammad Dawis or well known as KH. Ahmad Dahlan. He is Sultan Palace’s officer as a khatib (religious consultant) and a trader. In that period of time he really concern about the muslem society that extremely contaminated with some mythology and divergence beliefs. He struggled to neutralize muslem creed from those mythologies and improper divergences to be returned into the real and original thoughts of al-Qur’an and Prophetic traditions.
Just same as what the prophet Muhammad pbuh, he experienced the same situation, the same abuses and refusing. Therefore, KH.A Dahlan began his divergence from his family then the close colleagues. His divergence developed significantly in Kauman village up to the out-java regions in the short period of time. Then to manage these movements he establishes an Islamic social organization named “Muhammadiyah”.
Not only deliver his teaching to mans, he also thought woman and the young mothers in a study forum called “Sidratul Muntaha”. And his evenings and nights spent in teaching teens and adult people. KH.A Dahlan continued his struggles by establishing some schools; in 1913s-1918s he established 5 elementary schools, in 1919 he established Hooge School Muhammadiah that in 1923s-1930s became Mu’alimin and Mu’alimat. Muhammadiyah also established particular organization for the women of Muhammadiyah named “Aisyiah” organized by Nyi Ahmad Dahlan.
KH. A Dahlan lead Muhammadiah from 1912 up to 1922, he organized Muhammadiah in the system of leaded democracy with annual conference. On the 11th years KH. A Dahlan replaced by KH. Ibrahim until 1034. These annual conferences changed gradulally became three years conference and five years conference up today.
The structure of Muhammadiyah
In its development Muhammadiyah organize it structure and categorize it into two; vertical and horizontal structure.
The vertical structure consists of:
- Central official
- Region official
- Territory official
- Branch official
- Twig official
The horizontal structure consists of:
1. Assembly (majelisI)
a) Particular religious proselytizing
b) TPI (Tarjih and Islamic development thoughts)
c) DIDASMEN (the medium basic education)
d) DIKTI (higher education, middle education and)
e) Economic and entrepreneurship
f) Waqaf and Charities (ZIS)
g) Social movement
i) Public health and social welfare
j) MPK (Majelis pendidikan kader)
2. Institution (lembaga)
a) International relation
b) Driving manual
c) Hikmah and public policy
d) Law advisory and human rights
e) DKWN (the association of Harmony fund)
f) Culture fine
3. The derivatives of Muhammadiyah