The Government Supervision and Management for Labor force based on Umar Jurisprudence

Febryan Mujahid Panatagama (20090430023)

Layli Maghfirah Inayati (20090430007)

Abstract

Islam is the only true religion of Allah; its universality involved all aspects of human life individually or socially. In term of individuals Islam thought us to be aware of our duties and rights, and in term of social the government based on the Islamic thoughts has its special authority to maintain its peoples politically, law’s, human rights, and economically else. Especially in the economic term government roles significant rules to prevent its layman of religion to be avoided from mall-economic activities and to protect individual and social economic’s rights. Also to supervises its market system from any improper transactions that caused into the economic collapse. One element to be concerned in the economic activities is labor force and it regulations. What are the duties and rights of labor force based on the Islamic perspective?  What are the supervising roles of government in term of labor force management? And how the government should protect its economy especially in term of labor force’s management and protection? Will be explained though this writing based on the convention of Umar Caliph’s governance on his Caliph’s period of time.

Keyword: market system, labor force, labor force management, caliph period

Introduction

Umar bin Khatab is one of the caliphs known in the Islamic History. His competency has been admitted by the prophet Muhammad pbuh for his broad knowledge, Allah’s guidance on his understanding about the truth, and his leadership for his following peoples. The caliph Umar also well known in his government’s long well doing, stability, numerous of conquered areas, and his competency in solving a lots of economics issues that occurred at that time. His personal diligences in those economic issues kept his governing in stable.  Furthermore, we struggle to review the governing of caliph Umar in supervisions and managements of labor force.

The definition of employment in Islam involves both physical and intelligence works, such as farming works or national governing works. It notion contradicts the definition of employment conventionally that defined it as a contracted relationship among the employers and the employees commercially conceives only for productive activities in order to generate some profits.[1]

The aims of labor’s supervision and management here are the supervisory of Caliph Umar Radhiallahu Anhu toward his employees, religious leader, and his troops. The major benefit in studying this issue is avoiding any mall-management of labor force. The economists assuming that the success of trade in a country really depends on its economic management including labor management. The upgrading of economic management will upgrade the financial betterment and macroeconomic improvement.

Further, this study also discuses about the duties and rights of employees also it supervision based on the Islamic thoughts.[2] Hence the wide scope of this study, it will be bounded in only particular related of economic issues. Such as the duties and rights of employees, the supervision on it will be divided into two subtitles here: 1. the duties and rights of employees and 2; the purpose of employee’s supervisions.

This study also supposed to reflects how the Muslim should be a leader in any business management, and to shows them how they should treat their employees based on what Caliph Umar did in his period of time.

Content

1. The employees’ duties and rights

The distinct duties and rights of employees are needed in order to reach best performers in the workplace. It also supposed to minimize some deviations and for controlling the employee’s works. Therefore as a Caliphs Umar always explain the employee’s duties without leaving their needs and rights.

a. The employee’s duties

In his government Caliphs Umar always remains his employees about their personal principle duties or their responsibilities. It aimed as the stimulations to develop their struggle and effort in doing their works as good as possible. Some Umar statement is: “Really I say that I do not employ you oh ye Muhammad’s followers because of your salaries or syour bodies, but I employ you because you could command other to perform prayers, lead them in the right way, and provide them a justice”.[3] In the other statement: “Oh ye my people, I really do not delegate my employees to violate you or to take your properties, but I delegate them to teach you in the religion and its recommendations”. Afterwards Umar deliver his speech and said: “Remember, do not even once violate another Muslim and insult them, drive out them then caused dangerous for them, seize their right then caused them into heathenism, and drive them out into forest or remote areas.”[4]

It possibly listed that the major duties of employees are:

First, Teaching

The first duty of Umar’s employee is teaching on Islamic religion with the prophetic recommendations. The education on religion being very crucial because there will be no fortunes for the one who know nothing about his religion. Caliphs Umar also teach his employees in bowing, swimming, writing, and other skills to maximize their ability in the workplace.

Second, Islamic Thought building

It is inadequate to focusing and concerns about the theory of religion, but those theories should be implemented into the Muslim’s daily life. Then the duty to build the Islamic religion also burdened for Umar’s employees.

Five time obligated prayers performing is one of the most important elements of Islamic teaching to be fulfilled for Muslim people, and it was also what Umar emphasized to do so. As we see today, there are many companies that do not accommodate Muslim people’s right in fulfillment of their obligation as a Muslim. There is classical wise word from the ancient Islamic era, “The one who ignore their obligation in performing shalat, they will also ignore their responsibilities that given to them.” Umar ever wrote a letter for his governor that said: “Actually the most important thing to be fulfilled from you (employees) to me (Umar) is your responsibility in performing shalat. Who preserve and protect their obligation in performing shalat then they preserve and build their religion. Then when they ignored it means they will also ignore their responsibilities when they have it”. [5]

Third, Tax Submissions of Tax and Its Distribution

One of the leader’s responsibilities is to supervise the submissions of taxes and its distributions from their peoples. Caliph Umar considered that his employees are responsible on the taxes of his people and insisted on its supervisory. The fairness on its submissions and the transparency on its distributions are the aspects that emphasized by Caliph Umar most.

Forth, Avoiding the Glamorous and Arrogances of Wealth

The fact that almost people are influenced by their leader’s behaviors, it could reflected from Umar’s letters to his employee in Basrah, Abu Musa Ashy’ari; “The happy leader is the one who able to prospers his people and take them in the Happiness and prosperities. And the most unfortunate leader is the one who suffers his people and take them in the difficulties. Therefore, do not conduct some inappropriate behaviors in front of your peoples that will make your people do so.” Therefore Caliph Umar required his employees to avoid the behaviors related with wealth arrogance, in any form of it. The simple examples of Umar’s instructions are: Caliph Umar suggested to all his employees to avoid any joyfulness that come from their positions involved the suggestion to prefer the cheaper transportation in their formal works, Umar also suggest to his employees to life in simplicity.

Fifth, Social Preservation

The duties of employees not only in formal and administrational sides, but also the authorized employees should love and care about their team works. The employee that has not any love and cares to the other will not help each other and could use their authority for their own interest. When a leader do not love and care their people just like their own father they will care with the employee’s problems and obstacles.[6]

Sixth, Helping Each Other

The prophet Muhammad (pbuh) ever said,

“The one who authorized by Allah on the Muslim people interest, then they hide before its fulfillment of public interest, and abandoned his people in poverties, Allah will take the fulfillment of his interest, and throw him into poverty.”[7]

The prophetic tradition before defines the strong warning on the responsibilities ignorance of the employees in their works, that condition caused into delaying services and violate the people interest and right. The air time of a leader is unlimited in time; they should serve their people any time needed days or nights. In his time Caliph Umar always patrolled to his people at night to ensure about his people safety.

Seventh, Concentrating on the Workplaces

Caliph Umar is costumed to keep his employees work in focus and interdicted any double vacancy of his employees. Caliph Umar forbids his voices to have any job in their work’s period. Umar also implemented his custom on himself, he leaved his trading to concentrate on his work. “Transmitted from Umar Radhiyallahu Anhu that he give 500 dirham per month for Salman bin Rabi’ah Al-Bahili as his payment, then it sufficiently spend for his family’s survival.”[8]

b. The Employee’s Rights

Caliph Umar not only emphasize his employees to fulfill their responsibilities, but also really care about their rights and interests. The rights that commonly concerned by Umar are:

First, the Principle of Sufficiency

The requirement of employees to focus in their workplaces should be pay with the sufficient fees trough baitul maal. Al-Kamil bin Al-Hamdan ever said: “Transmitted from Umar Radhiyallahu Anhu that he give 500 dirham per month for Salman bin Rabi’ah Al-Bahili as his payment, then it sufficiently spend for his family’s survival.”[9]

When Caliph Umar focused himself to in dealing the Muslim Umah interests, he leaved his trading and other economics activities, then he submitted the companion and collecting the funds from them and said: “In fact that I myself is a trader before you burdened my with your problems and interests, then what do you see if I take these trading revenues?”[10]

In the other side, the fulfillments of employee’s rights become the main factor that could influence their quality of work and avoided them from any deviations in their authority. The payment of employees should be sufficient to be spent in the dharuriyah needs/the basic human needs such as meals, clothes, home, and transportation. It implemented by Umar in his own life, he limited his own salary that provided by baitul maal, he ever said: “It permitted only two hullah, a hullah in the winter and one for the summer time, also vehicle to hajj and umrah, meals for me and my family, the meals such other Quraisyan peoples, unlike the have or the have not one.”[11]

Beside limiting his own and his employee’s salary, Umar also instructed to all his employees to receive their salary, although they are classified as the rich. This instruction is laid on the prophetic tradition, the prophet Muhammad pbuh ever said:

“Take it and save as your wealth then do some charity from it. What comes from this funds, that not caused you into excessiveness or poverty, then take it, even if you don’t, don’t follow your desires.”[12]

This custom is supposed to stimulate the best performance of his employees in their works. It will be easier to regulate the employees after they received their salary as their rights then those who do not want to take their right, it just assumed as human being behaviors. According to Caliph Umar the payment of salary will directly impacts on his employees performances.

Second, the Employees Provisions’

One of Caliph Umar concern is the recruitment of his employees. He behave selectively and carefully to recruit someone to be applied for any work. Moreover he always explains and gives his employees some provisions about their works before they got their works. One of his provisions is: “Really I say that I do not employ you oh ye Muhammad’s followers because of your salaries or syour bodies, but I employ you because you could command other to perform prayers, lead them in the right way, and provide them a justice[13] In the other word Umar also said: “I have received the new that mentioned you only accepted the better physical body to be your employees, if you have received this letter than you have accept also the honored people who have expertise in understanding Al-qur’an, religious, and when they look for seat, welcome all of them to have it.”[14] Caliph Umar also wrote a letter to Abu Ubaidah, “There is none who able to commend some people to actualize Allah commands, except the one who are wise, broad-knowledge, defected in his integrity, not envying his people and don’t refuse the critics because of his loyalty trough Allah.”[15] On these transmissions Umar suggest his employee, Abu Ubaidah for several points, Umar told him the way to be succeed and doing the good work which is the wised one, good governance, and always ready to serve the public interests. Become the good figure, hearth cleaning, holding the anger, and maintaining the truths. On the other side, Umar also insist his employees to understand their nation’s condition, politically, economically, geographically, socially etc.[16]

Third, Vacation

In his period Caliph Umar does not permit his employees to invite their families in their workplaces. He also forbids his commander to add the official period of working of his troops in the same place to avoid some slanders of troop’s families. “Do not keep the troops then they suffered some slenders.”[17]

But, the things that should be understood by Muslim peoples are that in Islamic thought there is no vacant time for a Muslim, they should always having some works. They should manage their time to balance their works, their rights, their Lord’s rights, the family’s rights, the children rights etc; they couldn’t violate one of those rights.

Forth, Do not Burden What the Employees Unable to Finish It

In his period Caliph Umar forbade to burden or to give someone an employment that out of their capacity to finish it.[18] Its transmitted that there was Umar’s vice delegated his employee to observed through a river to find a trace for people interests during a very extreme weather in winter, than the employee said to his leader: “I really could be death if I observe into the river right now.” Than his leader insisted him and he was death after then. When this new is known by Umar, he said “I will come for him, I will come.” He took his troops and went to his vice and resigned him then said: “If not because of the prophetic traditions, definitely I will turn off you. Don’t be involved to my employment ever!”[19] On this transmission Caliph Umar asked his vice: “What have the killed man do on you?” then his vice replied: “Ye the leader of Muslim people, I was not purposely kill him, we don’t find any other options to cross the river and bla bla bla… then Umar replied: “That killed Muslim people is better than what you bring to me, even if not because of the prophetic traditions, really I will slaughtered you. Go to and give the killed man’s families some retributions, then out of here so then I will not see you.” [20] Caliph Umar always visits and advises his employees house on Saturday.

Fifth, Social Insurance and Medical Treatments

The social insurance here means the preservation and protection of their safety when they suffered some accidents that block their works, the protection of their families, and the preservation of their families after their death, including the health insurance. Umar is really concern about his employees physical conditions and fulfills their healthy rights such as medical treatments, nutritious and healthy meals.

2. The Purpose Control Officer

Umar not only requires and fulfills his employee’s duties and rights, but also he costumed to supervise and control his employees strictly. Those controls designed in many terms and conditions; a. The purpose of officer controlling; b. The method of officer’s controlling.

a. The Purpose of Officer’s controlling

  1. Equality of opportunity and ensure the ability of employees

What is meant by equal opportunity is to put the right people in the right position. Ability is a measure used by Umar in selecting employees. He said, “I am not going to employ someone, while I get stronger from it”[21]. Ibn Hajar also said that Umar select a leader in an area not only see the best in his religion, but combine with a wide knowledge of politics and away from the conflict with the Shari ‘a.[22] When Umar wanted to appoint a guardian for the inhabitants of Kufa, He is in consultation with the Islamic ummah and say, “If I vote for those who are weak, they will be insulted, and when I select them strong, they will be rebellious.” Omar is concerned about the ability, so if find someone more capable than an employee, so he fired him and replaced it with a more capable.

  1. Ensuring that the terms of the executed work

Umar when giving a job to an employee, then he gave some of the terms and ordered to keep them. Umar saw that their responsibilities do not stop at that alone, but there must be supervision of employees to ensure that they do work obligations and fulfill the requirements for those who are in it.[23]

  1. Align employee behavior

An employee who can sometimes be distorted mandate. Employees who are strong but his weak mandate requires strong oversight in order not to betray in her work. Umar said, “I would employ him and I’ll watch him.”[24] That is, I will ask for assistance to the people a perfect and strong, if not so, then I was behind him, watching him, I saw the situation. And the ability to be useful for me, and my care could have prevented him from treason.[25]

  1. Keeping the property in the Islamic ummah

An employee sometimes take advantage of his power and position to do zhalim against what was in his power, like wealth Islamic ummah. Therefore trust to the employees who have a strategic position for Umar.

  1. Give reward who do good behavior and punishing the evil

Motivation is an important side to the task direction and leadership in management. Therefore, there are two kinds of motivation: the motivation that led to increase business and improve their work, and motivation to prevent recurrence of errors and mistakes.[26] In order to become a practical motivation, it requires detailed monitoring to distinguish those who do good and those who do badly in a fair, then each be rewarded for his actions.

  1. Fair to the people

Umar forbade their employees to do zhalim to the people, or interfere with the body or their property. Umar said of his servants, “O Allah, I do not send them to hit their bodies. Whoever is in zhalim by the ruler, and then there is no authority for him than me. “[27] Omar is very concerned supervision of its employees to prevent them from doing zhalim to the people, and make them miserable is directly responsible. Umar said: “Anyone from the bodyguard who do zhalim to someone and the news to her zhalim reached me, and then I would not change it, so I have done zhalim him.”

  1. Combating bribery and conditions that are not prescribed

The aim is not only a bribe to get the treasure by not true, or to avoid giving property that must be paid, but sometimes given bribes to obtain employment or certain positions. So loudly about the bribes Umar forbade it.

  1. Set the working time

Among the reasons the success of the work is the timing of implementation. As for the bad timing with the prelude or ends, it causes confusion and difficulties in implementation.[28] To realize the above objectives is the most important ways to combat mismanagement and build the right environment to achieve economic growth, where there is a real and competition, and given the opportunity to develop skills. So will many new discoveries and inventions is further increased production and realization of progress and prosperity.

b.         The Way of Monitoring Employee

  1. a. Personal Supervision Strengthening
  2. Written agreement to an employee when appointed and testimony

Among supervision conducted by umar is if he hired an employee, so he wrote an agreement for him and witnessed to people from the muhajirin and Ansar, and requires them to not take the train, not to eat, do not wear soft clothes, and not create a barrier that prevents the door from human needs.

  1. Consultation with the people in choosing and pointing

Although Umar was very familiar with people and know their circumstances, but he was not alone in selecting employees, but Umar consultation with Muslims to choose and specify.[29]

  1. b. Supervision ways
  2. Experimental Examination

Umar testing some fatherly ensure that their employees know about the job. For example: narrated some of the inhabitants of Kufa thinks that Amar Bin Yasir not know the politics and do not know what ‘Umar to his hiring, the test Ammar Omar in the case, it seems at least Amar knowledge about his job, then fired him from Kufa Omar.[30]

  1. Examining and Verifying Truth

If Umar would prove a point territory then, Umar using several methods. Umar mode determines the truth among others:

a. Request sent envoy

b. Management oversight

c. Between Employees and the complainant is bringing

d. Asking Employees to Prove

  1. To the envoys asked

Among the ways Umar in supervising his employees, that does not come to him a man but he wondered about the purpose of his arrival.[31]

  1. Facilitate communication with the Caliph People Live (Open House)

The definition of the strategy is to allow the arrival of open houses to people wherever and whenever ruling without holding an appointment to see because there are purposes.[32] This is most important is that such direct communication allows people who were zhalim to explain the situation in front of the caliph. And you will know the truth and error.

  1. Annual Meeting

Among the most important way that was followed by Umar in supervising its employees is using the annual hajj pilgrimage. Umar ordered his servants weeks to see him on the pilgrimage season, and when they gathered, Umar said: ‘O people! I have not sent the clerk to hurt the bodies of you and your wealth, but I take care of them so that they are among you, and taxes divide among you, so whoever is not imposed such a stand. “[33]

  1. Field Visits

Umar did not feel quite the only news that reached him about the various regions, but he decided to make their own visits to these areas and stayed there for some time to understand the situation of the people there and hear from them what they could not be submitted him.

  1. Umar supervision of the authorities

The people have an important role in the leadership of his watch and perform its obligations advice to their members. Umar ordered the congregation to carry out that role. Umar said: “Help me against myself by ordering the good and forbid from the unjust and gave me advice about what is ruled by the God of your affairs.”[34]

  1. Making Standards Work Execution

Standard implementation of the task is a measure of quantity, time or quality for a specific job or part of a particular job. It’s important to make the standard implementation of a variety of tasks performed by people, where it resulted in execution of work according to plans made and improve the performance of duties and raise the level of implementation by the employees and increase their capabilities, and inform employees about the measures to determine success or negligence and an award or penalty acquired.[35]

  1. Correspondence`

Correspondence between Umar and the governor is not broken. Umar asked him to member records of state employees, the people and their State. Among his letter to the Sa’ad Abi bi Waqash, “and write a letter to me as if I saw you and make me clear about your affairs.”[36] That’s the most important ways Umar in supervising his employees and their work. Ways has been shown in surveillance purposes. “Verily, Umar knowledge of people working for it from employees and citizens, such as knowledge of the people who grew with him at any place, one pillow. There is no area somewhere or an employee or a squad leader, unless he has a spy, do not abandon what he found, then the news story about people in the east and west of there at her every evening and morning, there is a biased view in a letter to servants, so that an employee of them thought that he was the nearest and especially for Omar.”[37]

Conclusion

Many problems occurred today that stemmed from the labor forces, the social interest conflicts, bad labor force’s management always head off the economics in some countries. Umar comes with very wise solutions in treating his employees; he maintained his leadership especially in the economic activities well and succeeds in developing his economic system.

He managed his economic system by performing some designs such as: The right and idle employees’ recruitment, the demand of responsibilities fulfillments, the concerns of the employees’ rights and duties, also the supervisory and advice for his entire employees.

The writers aware that most of Umar’s employees mentioned in this study are mostly government servant and the army force, but it have to be understood that in the Caliph’s period, the economic system is included into the government services, where the government’s intervention is applied in order to actualize the social welfare and justice.

References:

Dr. Audhin bin Muhammad Al-Qarni, hatta La takuna Kallon

Dr. Muhammad Ar-Ridha Abdul Rahman Al-Aghbasy, Op.cit., page 195 Tanzhim Al-Amal Al-Idari fi An-Nizham Al-Islami

Dr. Muhammad Ridha Abdul Rahman Al-Aghbasy, Al-Siyasah Al-Idariyah Fi Sahadar Al-islam

Dr. Muhammad Ar-Ridho Abdul Rahman Al-Aghbasy; As-Siyasah Al-Idariyah li Ad-Daulah fi Shadr Al-Islam

Dr. Mahmmud Assaf, Ushul Al-Idarah

Dr. Jaribah bin Ahmad Al-Haritsi, Al-Fiqh Al-Iqtishadi Li Amiril Mukminin Umar Ibn Al-Khaththab, Dar Al-Andalus Al-Khadra’., Jeddah

Prophetic Traditions:

Bukhari

Ahmad

Abu Daud

Al-Baihaqi

Ibnu Katsir

Ath-Thabari

Abu Yusuf

Ibnu Saad

Ibnu Jauzi

Ibnu Hajar

Restricted source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employment 20:25, 15/05/2010


[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employment

[2] The major’s examples in this study are in the scope of government servants, troops, and others particular employment.

[3] Al-Haritsi Ahmad Jaribah: Fiqih Ekonomi Umar, page: 669.

[4] Ahmad, Al-Musnad, hadits no.(288), Ath-Thabari, Tarikh Al-Umam Wa Al-Muluk, (5/197), Abu Yusuf, Kitab Al-Kharaj, page. 241-242, Ibnu Saad, Ath-Thabaqat Al-Kubra, (3/212-213), Ibnu Jauzi, Manaqib Umar, hlm, 118-119, Ibn Abdil Hadi, Mahdhu Ash-Shawab fi Fadhail Amir Al-Mu’minin Umar Al-Khathab, (2/465-466)

[5] Malik, Al-Murwaththa’ (1/6)

[6] Dr. Muhammad Ar-Ridho Abdul Rahman Al-Aghbasy; As-Siyasah Al-Idariyah li Ad-Daulah fi Shadr Al-Islam, page 173

[7] HR. Abu Daud, As-sunan, Hadits no. 2948, At-Tirmidzi, As-Sunan, Hadits no.1332 in Shahih author, Ibnu Hajar, Fath Al-Bari, (13/143)

[8] Fath Al-Bari, (7/258)

[9] Ibid, page 5

[10] Dr. Jaribah bin Ahmad Al-Haritsi, Fikih Ekonomi Umar bin Khathab, page 647

[11] Dr. Jaribah bin Ahmad Al-Haritsi, Fikih Ekonomi Umar bin Khathab, page 648

[12] HR. Bukhari, As-Shahih nadits no. (7163), Mahmud Ahmad Sulaiman Awwad, Al-Jaisywa Al-Qital fi Shadr Al-Islam, page. 513-514

[13] Ibid, page 3

[14] Ibnu Abi Syaiban, Al-Mushannaf, (7/197), Abu Ubaid, Kitab Al-Amwal, page. 12, At-THabari, Op.cit, (5/207), Ibnul Jauzi, Op.cit, page 157

[15] Ibnul-Jauzi, Op.cit, page. 157-158, Ibul Abdil Hadi, Op.cit, (2/550-551)

[16] Dr. Muhammad Ar-Ridha Abdul Rahman Al-Aghbasy, Op.cit., page 195 Tanzhim Al-Amal Al-Idari fi An-Nizham Al-Islami, page 80

[17] Al-Baihaqi, Ma’rifah As-Sunnah wa Al-Atsar, (6/507)

[18] Al-Baladziri, Ansab Al-Asyraf, page 263

[19] Ibnu Syaban, Op.cit, (3/29), Ibnul Jauzi, Op.cit., page. 145. Ibnu Abdil Hadi, Op.cit., (1/372,2/251)

[20] Al-Baihaqi, As-Sunan Al-Kubra, (8/560), Al-Muttaqi Al-Hindi, Op.cit (15/81)

[21] Al-Baladzri, Op. Cit, page. 246, Ibnu Saad, Op.cit, (3/232)

[22] Ibnu syabah, Op,cit, page 196, Ath thabari, Op,cit, (5/153-154), Abu Ubaid, Gharib Al-Hadits, (2/44), Ibnu Katsir, Op.cit, (7/129)Ibnu hajar, Op.cit,(6/280)

[23] Abdul Razzaq, Op,cit,(11/326)Al-Baihaqi, Cp,cit (8/282), Al-Mutaqqi Al-Hinddi Op,cit (5/771), Ibnul Katsir, An-Nibayah (4/92), Ibnul Jauzi page 143-144

[24] Abdul Ubaid Op. cit, (2/21), Ibnu Katsir Musnar Al-Fariq, (2/539), Al-mutaqi Al-Hinddi, Op.cit, (5/771), Ibnul Katsir Al-Nihayah, (4/92)

[25] Ibnul Atsir, Op.cit, (4/92)

[26] Dr. Mahmmud Assaf, Ushul Al-Idarah page 530-531, Dr Madani Abdul Qadir Allafi, Al-idarah, page 372

[27] At-thabari, Op.cit, (5/196-197), Abu Yusuf, Op.cit, page 424, Ibnu Saad, Op.cit (3/321)

[28] Dr. Audhin bin Muhammad A-Qarni, hatta La takuna Kallon, page 27-31

[29] Dr. Muhammad Ridha Abdul Rahman Al-Aghbasy, Al-Siyasah Al-Idariyah Fi Sahadar Al-islam, page 173

[30] Ath-Thabari, Tarikh Al-Umamwa Al-Mulk, (5/152), Ibnu Abi Syaibah, Op.cit, (6/550). Ibnu Atasir, Op.cit, (2/433). Adz-Dzarabi. Op.cit ,(2-1-243), sanadnya Dhaif.

[31] Ath-Thabari, Op.cit, (5/173). Ibnu Atsir. Cp.cit (2/44)

[32] Sam Deep and Liil Susam, Al-Khutuwat Adz-Dzakriyah, translate. Sami Taisir Salman, page 34

[33] Ibnul Hakam, Op.cit, page 114, Al-Baladzri, Op.cit, page 235

[34] Ibnu Katsir, Op.cit. (7/56-62, 72-82), Dr ghalib bin Abdul kafi Al-Qaraisy, Op.cit (1 / 159-178)

[35] Dr. Alli Muhammad Abdul Wahab, page 172

[36] Ibnu Katsir, Op.cit, (7 / 37-38), ath-Thabari, Op.cit (4 / 314-315), (5/ 12-24, 51-80, 52, 85-86)

[37] At-Taifi Akhlaq Al-Mulk, page 168