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“The Islamic economists often remain in debate to formulate several Islamic economics theories and instruments.” -Chapra- In a larger scope of view, Indonesian Islamic economic development has been dominated with a sophisticated euphoria on Islamic commercial banking industry; which are from the beginning grow on the basis of Limited Company or PT and forget about the essence of Islamic Economics main idea. How far that industry might thinks to develop poor people economic capacity? United Nation defines poverty as the lack or the absence of income to fulfill diet and housing; therefore, automatically the potential unemployment that have economic potential fall to poverty. Islamic banking statistic on February 2012 records 11 Islamic Banks available in Indonesia with 1.421b branch offices. And according to Indonesia BMT Association data in the end of 2011 there are only 168 BMT registered in association. With refers to office development it could be concluded that there is significant fraction between Islamic banks development and Indonesia BMT Association member; where, theoretically BMT should be the only Islamic financial institution that could apply PLS mechanism in developing poverty reduction.

In general acknowledgement bank is intermediary financial institution that supposed to collect third party funds in term of saving and distribute those funds to the less capital party in term of lending or investment contracts; additionally, bank could provide several services in related to the financial circumstances. Islamic banking development provide a joyful alternative for Muslim community to prevent them from riba’ banking services. Almost Muslim today could save and invest their money in their preferred Islamic bank without no worries on riba’ through Islamic banks products. In the same time Islamic banks might secure their third party fund through Islamic portfolio or reinsure it to Islamic insurance. The market force and the prudent system promise further sophisticated Islamic banking development.

            BMT or baitul maal wa tamwil refers to Arabic term, baitul maal means house of wealth or treasury and bait at-tamwil refers to house of wealth collection and distribution. BMT operate on the basis of Islamic cooperative with hybrid institutional function as baitul maal or business unit and baitut tamwil or non-profit financial institution. BMT grow in the middle of unbankable micro business community such as traditional market, central of handicraft, farm fields and others small business community. BMT help people to finance their small business and reduce their interaction with money lender.  

            With concerns to the fact that Islamic banking industry must reach their efficiency and profit maximization we believe that, it will be difficult for Islamic banking industry to contribute in poverty reduction real action; even though, they are promoting PLS mechanism as one of their investment product. The nature of Profit and Loss sharing mechanism is to share both full risk and return against the principle and central bank prudential principle; therefore, restrict Islamic banking industry to accommodate those unbakable party. BMT have its unique capacity on the basis on Islamic cooperative is the best pillar of national economy particularly in the alternative of Islamic economic development. We believe that a healthy BMT could apply PLS mechanism better

References:

Abdul Azim. Islahi, Contribution of Muslim Scholars to Economic Thought and Analysis, Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Center King Abdul Aziz University, 2005.

Antonio M. Syafi’i, Bank Syariah Dari Teori Ke Praktik, Jakarta: Gema Insani Press, 2001, Tazkia Cendikia.

Chapra, Umer, Towards a Just Monetary System, United Kingdom: International Islamic Publishing House.

Chapra M. Umer, Masa Depan Ilmu Ekonomi Sebuah Tinjauan Islam, Jakarta: Gema Insani Press,  2000.

Chapra M. Umer, Sistem Moneter Islam, Jakarta: Gema Insani Press, 2000.

Karim, Adiwarman, Ekonomi Makro Islami , Raja Grafindo, Jakarta, 2007

Online sources:

http://www.bi.go.id/NR/rdonlyres/BF07D645-8F73-478D-8967 19EC1022B5A7/25922/SPSFeb2013.pdf

 http://www.emicsyariah.com/2012/02/haluan-bmt-2020-perhimpunan-bmt.html

http://id.wikisource.org/wiki/Undang-Undang_Republik_Indonesia_Nomor_10_Tahun_1998

 

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Hampir dua pekan perhelatan akbar Muhammadiyah berlalu, namun bagi mantan relawan seperti gw ada banyak hal baru yang bisa gw lihat, gw dengar, gw pelajarin, gw perhatikan, dan gw ingat. Suka duka relawan Mu’tamar memang tiada duanya, gw sendiri jadi relawan di sub-divisi Humas bagian Media Center. Tugasnya menyiapkan segala sesuatu yang dibutuhkan oleh para wartawan beserta kru panitia lain yang tergabung dalam sub-divisi humas dan publikasi.

Testimoni gw ini bukan semata-mata dari sudut pandang pribadi gw yang cuman berstatus sebagai relawan di salah satu divisi kecil dalam kepanitiaan mu’tamar 1 abad Muhammadiyah, namun testimony ini berangkat dari sharing beberapa relawan-relawan lain dari berbagai divisi dalam kepanitiaan mu’tamar.

Beberapa hal yang jadi concern gw setelah kepanitiaan:

1. Adanya perbedaan status relawan Mu’tamar yang tergolong menjadi 2 yaitu: Relawan MURNI dan Relawan KKN. Ternyata usut punya usut system pengawasan dan management para relawan yang notabenenya adalah seorang yang mengambil KKN tematik AMAT SANGAT LEMAH KURANG SEKALI terbukti di berbagai sub-devisi banyak relawan kkn yang tidak kerja, santai, entah kemana dll.

2. Sikap dingin beberapa oknum panitia golongan atas terhadap para relawan, sebagai contoh: Bapak “M” yang membawahi divisi kesekretariatan tertangkap basah secara langsung oleh anak salah satu Pimpinan Pusat Muhammadiyah yang kebetulan menjadi salah satu relawan murni. “waktu itu gw disuruh ngambil data ‘aisyah umi (Istri Buya Yunahar Ilyas) ke temu sama bapak “M” yang membawahi devisi gw, eh mentang2 gw make ID relawan dicuekin and dikacangin selama 30 menit didepan pintu, padahal jelas2 Bapak “M” melihat keberadaan gw….” Dan setelah sopir PP nelpon Bpk “M” itu untuk menanyakan apakah data ‘asyiah sudah diberikan ke gw?” langsung dah bapaknya bilang gini “OOOOH MAAF MBAK SAYA KIRA ANAK KKN”

3. Saya mendapat keluahan dari teman-teman relawan dari divisi pameran yang mereka dengar dari para pemilik stan di Pameran, mereka merasa terbohongi karena keadaan dilapangan sangat jauh dari apa yang ditawarkan di proposal, ditambah pedagang liar yang tidak terdaftar dalam list peserta pameran. Hal ini dan beberapa factor lainnya membuat sebagian pemilik stan mengaku rugi besar dan tidak balik modal. Gw juga dapet kabar gara2 hak ini juga sempat terjadi insiden baku hantam di arena pameran.

Yah itu sih beberapa concern gw buat acara kemaren, bukan berarti kepanitiaan kemaren jelek karena gw juga sadar betapa sulitnya mempanitiai acara sebesar itu, itu semua hanya berasal dari oknum2 panitia yang kurang bertanggung jawab. Hehehehk …..

The Government Supervision and Management for Labor force based on Umar Jurisprudence

Febryan Mujahid Panatagama (20090430023)

Layli Maghfirah Inayati (20090430007)

Abstract

Islam is the only true religion of Allah; its universality involved all aspects of human life individually or socially. In term of individuals Islam thought us to be aware of our duties and rights, and in term of social the government based on the Islamic thoughts has its special authority to maintain its peoples politically, law’s, human rights, and economically else. Especially in the economic term government roles significant rules to prevent its layman of religion to be avoided from mall-economic activities and to protect individual and social economic’s rights. Also to supervises its market system from any improper transactions that caused into the economic collapse. One element to be concerned in the economic activities is labor force and it regulations. What are the duties and rights of labor force based on the Islamic perspective?  What are the supervising roles of government in term of labor force management? And how the government should protect its economy especially in term of labor force’s management and protection? Will be explained though this writing.

Keyword: market system, labor force

Introduction

Umar bin Khatab is one of the caliphs known in the Islamic History. His competency has been admitted by the prophet Muhammad pbuh for his broad knowledge, Allah’s guidance on his understanding about the truth, and his leadership for his following peoples. The caliph Umar also well known in his government’s long well doing, stability, numerous of conquered areas, and his competency in solving a lots of economics issues that occurred at that time. His personal diligences in those economic issues kept his governing in stable.  Furthermore, we struggle to review the governing of caliph Umar in supervisions and managements of labor force.

The definition of employment in Islam involves both physical and intelligence works, such as farming works or national governing works. It notion contradicts the definition of employment conventionally that defined it as a contracted relationship among the employers and the employees commercially conceives only for productive activities in order to generate some profits.[1]

The aims of labor’s supervision and management here are the supervisory of Caliph Umar Radhiallahu Anhu toward his employees, religious leader, and his troops. The major benefit in studying this issue is avoiding any mall-management of labor force. The economists assuming that the success of trade in a country really depends on its economic management including labor management. The upgrading of economic management will upgrade the financial betterment and macroeconomic improvement.

Further, this study also discuses about the duties and rights of employees also it supervision based on the Islamic thoughts.[2] Hence the wide scope of this study, it will be bounded in only particular related of economic issues. Such as the duties and rights of employees, the supervision on it will be divided into two subtitles here: 1. the duties and rights of employees and 2; the purpose of employee’s supervisions.

1. The employees’ duties and rights

The distinct duties and rights of employees are needed in order to reach best performers in the workplace. It also supposed to minimize some deviations and for controlling the employee’s works. Therefore as a Caliphs Umar always explain the employee’s duties without leaving their needs and rights.

a. The employee’s duties

In his government Caliphs Umar always remains his employees about their personal principle duties or their responsibilities. It aimed as the stimulations to develop their struggle and effort in doing their works as good as possible. Some Umar statement is: “Really I say that I do not employ you oh ye Muhammad’s followers because of your salaries or syour bodies, but I employ you because you could command other to perform prayers, lead them in the right way, and provide them a justice”.[3] In the other statement: “Oh ye my people, I really do not delegate my employees to violate you or to take your properties, but I delegate them to teach you in the religion and its recommendations”. Afterwards Umar deliver his speech and said: “Remember, do not even once violate another Muslim and insult them, drive out them then caused dangerous for them, seize their right then caused them into heathenism, and drive them out into forest or remote areas.”[4]

It possibly listed that the major duties of employees are:

First, Teaching

The first duty of Umar’s employee is teaching on Islamic religion with the prophetic recommendations. The education on religion being very crucial because there will be no fortunes for the one who know nothing about his religion. Caliphs Umar also teach his employees in bowing, swimming, writing, and other skills to maximize their ability in the workplace.

Second, Islamic Thought building

It is inadequate to focusing and concerns about the theory of religion, but those theories should be implemented into the Muslim’s daily life. Then the duty to build the Islamic religion also burdened for Umar’s employees.

Five time obligated prayers performing is one of the most important elements of Islamic teaching to be fulfilled for Muslim people, and it was also what Umar emphasized to do so. As we see today, there are many companies that do not accommodate Muslim people’s right in fulfillment of their obligation as a Muslim. There is classical wise word from the ancient Islamic era, “The one who ignore their obligation in performing shalat, they will also ignore their responsibilities that given to them.” Umar ever wrote a letter for his governor that said: “Actually the most important thing to be fulfilled from you (employees) to me (Umar) is your responsibility in performing shalat. Who preserve and protect their obligation in performing shalat then they preserve and build their religion. Then when they ignored it means they will also ignore their responsibilities when they have it”. [5]

Third, Tax Submissions of Tax and Its Distribution

One of the leader’s responsibilities is to supervise the submissions of taxes and its distributions from their peoples. Caliph Umar considered that his employees are responsible on the taxes of his people and insisted on its supervisory. The fairness on its submissions and the transparency on its distributions are the aspects that emphasized by Caliph Umar most.

Forth, Avoiding the Glamorous and Arrogances of Wealth

The fact that almost people are influenced by their leader’s behaviors, it could reflected from Umar’s letters to his employee in Basrah, Abu Musa Ashy’ari; “The happy leader is the one who able to prospers his people and take them in the Happiness and prosperities. And the most unfortunate leader is the one who suffers his people and take them in the difficulties. Therefore, do not conduct some inappropriate behaviors in front of your peoples that will make your people do so.” Therefore Caliph Umar required his employees to avoid the behaviors related with wealth arrogance, in any form of it. The simple examples of Umar’s instructions are: Caliph Umar suggested to all his employees to avoid any joyfulness that come from their positions involved the suggestion to prefer the cheaper transportation in their formal works, Umar also suggest to his employees to life in simplicity.

Fifth, Social Preservation

The duties of employees not only in formal and administrational sides, but also the authorized employees should love their team works. Caliph Umar

  1. 1. The Purpose Control Officer
  2. Equality of opportunity and ensure the ability of employees

What is meant by equal opportunity is to put the right people in the right position. Ability is a measure used by Umar in selecting employees. He said, “I am not going to employ someone, while I get stronger from it”[6]. Ibn Hajar also said that Umar select a leader in an area not only see the best in his religion, but combine with a wide knowledge of politics and away from the conflict with the Shari ‘a.[7] When Umar wanted to appoint a guardian for the inhabitants of Kufa, He is in consultation with the Islamic ummah and say, “If I vote for those who are weak, they will be insulted, and when I select them strong, they will be rebellious.” Omar is concerned about the ability, so if find someone more capable than an employee, so he fired him and replaced it with a more capable.

  1. Ensuring that the terms of the executed work

Umar when giving a job to an employee, then he gave some of the terms and ordered to keep them. Umar saw that their responsibilities do not stop at that alone, but there must be supervision of employees to ensure that they do work obligations and fulfill the requirements for those who are in it.[8]

  1. Align employee behavior

An employee who can sometimes be distorted mandate. Employees who are strong but his weak mandate requires strong oversight in order not to betray in her work. Umar said, “I would employ him and I’ll watch him.”[9] That is, I will ask for assistance to the people a perfect and strong, if not so, then I was behind him, watching him, I saw the situation. And the ability to be useful for me, and my care could have prevented him from treason.[10]

  1. Keeping the property in the Islamic ummah

An employee sometimes take advantage of his power and position to do zhalim against what was in his power, like wealth Islamic ummah. Therefore trust to the employees who have a strategic position for Umar.

  1. Give reward who do good behavior and punishing the evil

Motivation is an important side to the task direction and leadership in management. Therefore, there are two kinds of motivation: the motivation that led to increase business and improve their work, and motivation to prevent recurrence of errors and mistakes.[11] In order to become a practical motivation, it requires detailed monitoring to distinguish those who do good and those who do badly in a fair, then each be rewarded for his actions.

  1. Fair to the people

Umar forbade their employees to do zhalim to the people, or interfere with the body or their property. Umar said of his servants, “O Allah, I do not send them to hit their bodies. Whoever is in zhalim by the ruler, and then there is no authority for him than me. “[12] Omar is very concerned supervision of its employees to prevent them from doing zhalim to the people, and make them miserable is directly responsible. Umar said: “Anyone from the bodyguard who do zhalim to someone and the news to her zhalim reached me, and then I would not change it, so I have done zhalim him.”

  1. Combating bribery and conditions that are not prescribed

The aim is not only a bribe to get the treasure by not true, or to avoid giving property that must be paid, but sometimes given bribes to obtain employment or certain positions. So loudly about the bribes Umar forbade it.

  1. Set the working time

Among the reasons the success of the work is the timing of implementation. As for the bad timing with the prelude or ends, it causes confusion and difficulties in implementation.[13] To realize the above objectives is the most important ways to combat mismanagement and build the right environment to achieve economic growth, where there is a real and competition, and given the opportunity to develop skills. So will many new discoveries and inventions is further increased production and realization of progress and prosperity.

  1. 2. The Way of Monitoring Employee
  2. Personal Supervision Strengthening
  3. Written agreement to an employee when appointed and testimony

Among supervision conducted by umar is if he hired an employee, so he wrote an agreement for him and witnessed to people from the muhajirin and Ansar, and requires them to not take the train, not to eat, do not wear soft clothes, and not create a barrier that prevents the door from human needs.[14]

  1. Consultation with the people in choosing and pointing

Although Umar was very familiar with people and know their circumstances, but he was not alone in selecting employees, but Umar consultation with Muslims to choose and specify.[15]

  1. Supervision ways
  2. Experimental Examination

Umar testing some fatherly ensure that their employees know about the job. For example: narrated some of the inhabitants of Kufa thinks that Amar Bin Yasir not know the politics and do not know what ‘Umar to his hiring, the test Ammar Omar in the case, it seems at least Amar knowledge about his job, then fired him from Kufa Omar.[16]

  1. Examining and Verifying Truth

If Umar would prove a point territory then, Umar using several methods. Umar mode determines the truth among others:

a. Request sent envoy

b. Management oversight

c. Between Employees and the complainant is bringing

d. Asking Employees to Prove

  1. To the envoys asked

Among the ways Umar in supervising his employees, that does not come to him a man but he wondered about the purpose of his arrival.[17]

  1. Facilitate communication with the Caliph People Live (Open House)

The definition of the strategy is to allow the arrival of open houses to people wherever and whenever ruling without holding an appointment to see because there are purposes.[18] This is most important is that such direct communication allows people who were zhalim to explain the situation in front of the caliph. And you will know the truth and error.

  1. Annual Meeting

Among the most important way that was followed by Umar in supervising its employees is using the annual hajj pilgrimage. Umar ordered his servants weeks to see him on the pilgrimage season, and when they gathered, Umar said: ‘O people! I have not sent the clerk to hurt the bodies of you and your wealth, but I take care of them so that they are among you, and taxes divide among you, so whoever is not imposed such a stand. “[19]

  1. Field Visits

Umar did not feel quite the only news that reached him about the various regions, but he decided to make their own visits to these areas and stayed there for some time to understand the situation of the people there and hear from them what they could not be submitted him.

  1. Umar supervision of the authorities

The people have an important role in the leadership of his watch and perform its obligations advice to their members. Umar ordered the congregation to carry out that role. Umar said: “Help me against myself by ordering the good and forbid from the unjust and gave me advice about what is ruled by the God of your affairs.”[20]

  1. Making Standards Work Execution

Standard implementation of the task is a measure of quantity, time or quality for a specific job or part of a particular job. It’s important to make the standard implementation of a variety of tasks performed by people, where it resulted in execution of work according to plans made and improve the performance of duties and raise the level of implementation by the employees and increase their capabilities, and inform employees about the measures to determine success or negligence and an award or penalty acquired.[21]

  1. Correspondence`

Correspondence between Umar and the governor is not broken. Umar asked him to member records of state employees, the people and their State. Among his letter to the Sa’ad Abi bi Waqash, “and write a letter to me as if I saw you and make me clear about your affairs.”[22] That’s the most important ways Umar in supervising his employees and their work. Ways has been shown in surveillance purposes. “Verily, Umar knowledge of people working for it from employees and citizens, such as knowledge of the people who grew with him at any place, one pillow. There is no area somewhere or an employee or a squad leader, unless he has a spy, do not abandon what he found, then the news story about people in the east and west of there at her every evening and morning, there is a biased view in a letter to servants, so that an employee of them thought that he was the nearest and especially for Omar.[23]


[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employment

[2] The major’s examples in this study are in the scope of government servants, troops, and others particular employment.

[3] Al-Haritsi Ahmad Jaribah: Fiqih Ekonomi Umar, page: 669.

[4] Ahmad, Al-Musnad, hadits no.(288), Ath-Thabari, Tarikh Al-Umam Wa Al-Muluk, (5/197), Abu Yusuf, Kitab Al-Kharaj, page. 241-242, Ibnu Saad, Ath-Thabaqat Al-Kubra, (3/212-213), Ibnu Jauzi, Manaqib Umar, hlm, 118-119, Ibn Abdil Hadi, Mahdhu Ash-Shawab fi Fadhail Amir Al-Mu’minin Umar Al-Khathab, (2/465-466)

[5] Malik, Al-Murwaththa’ (1/6), Adul Razzaq,

[6] Al-Baladzri, Cp. Cit, page. 246, Ibnu Saad, Cp.cit, (3/232)

[7] Ibnu syabah, Cp,cit, page 196, Ath thabari, Cp,cit, (5/153-154), Abu Ubaid, Gharib Al-Hadits, (2/44), Ibnu Katsir, Cp.cit, (7/129)Ibnu hajar, Cp.cit,(6/280)

[8] Abdul Razzaq, Cp,cit,(11/326)Al-Baihaqi, Cp,cit (8/282), Al-Mutaqqi Al-Hinddi Cp,cit (5/771), Ibnul Katsir, An-Nibayah (4/92), Ibnul Jauzi page 143-144

[9] Abdul Ubaid Cp. cit, (2/21), Ibnu KAtsir Musnar Al-Fariq, (2/539), Al-mutaqi Al-Hinddi, Cp.cit, (5/771), Ibnul Katsir Al-Nihayah, (4/92)

[10] Ibnul Atsir, Cp.cit, (4/92)

[11] Dr. Mahmmud Assaf, Ushul Al-Idarah page 530-531, Dr Madani Abdul Qadir Allafi, Al-idarah, page 372

[12] -thabari, Cp.cit, (5/196-197), Abu Yusuf, Cp.cit, page 424, Ibnu Saad, Cp.cit (3/321)

[13] Dr. Audhin bin Muhammad A-Qarni, hatta La takuna Kallon, page 27-31

[14] See takhrij in front

[15] Dr. Muhammad Ridha Abdul Rahman Al-Aghbasy, Al-Siyasah Al-Idariyah Fi Sahadar Al-islam, page 173

[16] Ath-Thabari, Tarikh Al-Umamwa Al-Mulk, (5/152), Ibnu Abi Syaibah, Cp.cit, (6/550). Ibnu Atasir, Cp.cit, (2/433). Adz-Dzarabi. Cp.cit ,(2-1-243), sanadnya Dhaif.

[17] Ath-Thabari, Cp.cit, (5/173). Ibnu Atsir. Cp.cit (2/44)

[18] Sam Deep dan Liil Susam, Al-Khutuwat Adz-Dzakriyah, translate. Sami Taisir Salman, page 34

[19] Ibnul Hakam, Cp.cit, page 114, Al-BAladzri, Cp.cit, page 235

[20] Ibnu Katsir, Cp.cit. (7/56-62, 72-82), Dr ghalib bin Abdul kafi Al-Qaraisy, Cp.cit (1 / 159-178)

[21] Dr. Alli Muhammad Abdul Wahab, page 172

[22] Ibnu Katsir, Cp.cit, (7 / 37-38), ath-Thabari, Cp.cit (4 / 314-315), (5/ 12-24, 51-80, 52, 85-86)

[23] At-Taifi Akhlaq Al-Mulk, page 168

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Muhammadiyah, the history and structure

Muhammadiya is an Islamic social organization in Indoensia. Muhammadiyah refers to the name of Prophet Muhammad pbuh and it well known as the follower of him. Muhammadiah supposed to neutralize the Islamic proselyte from any deviations that generally contaminated on the name of adaptations.  Muhammadiyah specify its missionary in the educational line and building the Islamic base civilization. In its movement Muhammadiyah refers to qur’anic verse bellow:

وَلْتَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

“And let there be such a group among you, then may call towards goodness and command what is just and forbid evil. And the very same attained to their goals”.

The official site of Muhammadiyah mentioned that Muhammadiyah is established in Kauman, Yogyakarta 18 November 1912/8 Dzulhijjah 1330, by Muhammad Dawis or well known as KH. Ahmad Dahlan. He is Sultan Palace’s officer as a khatib (religious consultant) and a trader. In that period of time he really concern about the muslem society that extremely contaminated with some mythology and divergence beliefs. He struggled to neutralize muslem creed from those mythologies and improper divergences to be returned into the real and original thoughts of al-Qur’an and Prophetic traditions.

Just same as what the prophet Muhammad pbuh, he experienced the same situation, the same abuses and refusing. Therefore, KH.A Dahlan began his divergence from his family then the close colleagues. His divergence developed significantly in Kauman village up to the out-java regions in the short period of time. Then to manage these movements he establishes an Islamic social organization named “Muhammadiyah”.

Not only deliver his teaching to mans, he also thought woman and the young mothers in a study forum called “Sidratul Muntaha”. And his evenings and nights spent in teaching teens and adult people. KH.A Dahlan continued his struggles by establishing some schools; in 1913s-1918s he established 5 elementary schools, in 1919 he established Hooge School Muhammadiah that in 1923s-1930s became Mu’alimin and Mu’alimat. Muhammadiyah also established particular organization for the women of Muhammadiyah named “Aisyiah” organized by Nyi Ahmad Dahlan.

KH. A Dahlan lead Muhammadiah from 1912 up to 1922, he organized Muhammadiah in the system of leaded democracy with annual conference. On the 11th years KH. A Dahlan replaced by KH. Ibrahim until 1034. These annual conferences changed gradulally became three years conference and five years conference up today.

The structure of Muhammadiyah

In its development Muhammadiyah organize it structure and categorize it into two; vertical and horizontal structure.

The vertical structure consists of:

  1. Central official
  2. Region official
  3. Territory official
  4. Branch official
  5. Twig official

The horizontal structure consists of:

1. Assembly (majelisI)

a)     Particular religious proselytizing

b)     TPI (Tarjih and Islamic development thoughts)

c)      DIDASMEN (the medium basic education)

d)     DIKTI (higher education, middle education and)

e)     Economic and entrepreneurship

f)       Waqaf and Charities (ZIS)

g)     Social movement

h)     Trainings

i)       Public health and social welfare

j)       MPK (Majelis pendidikan kader)

2.  Institution (lembaga)

a)     International relation

b)     Driving manual

c)      Hikmah and public policy

d)     Law advisory and human rights

e)     DKWN (the association of Harmony fund)

f)       Culture fine

3. The derivatives of Muhammadiyah

a)     IMM

b)     IPM

c)      NA

d)     PM

e)     TSPM

f)       HW

Haduuuuuuh, bener2 conflict of interest yang tiada duanya. Neh gw lagi diantara dua pilihan yang sama2 beratnya. Disatu sisi gw ada 4 tugas yang menumpuk untuk hari selasa besok. Dan disisi lainnya gw pengeeeeen banget nonton naruto eps. 135-140 yang seruuu abiiis…… Itu eps waktu sasuke vs uchiha…. dah lama baca komikknya tapi baru semper liat felemnya sekarang… Hari minggu yang gila ini….. Haduuuh apa yang harus aku lakukaaaaa.???

Citizenships cases and its analysis based on constitution No.12 year 2006.

Case:

1. The case of Irfan Bachdim (Dutch soccer plyare). This case happened in February 2009.

Case analysis:

Irfan Bachdim profile:

Bird: Netherland, 11 August 1988, the son of Indonesian father and a Dutch mother. His family moved to Netherland after his parent marriage.

Case’s solving:

Based on the constitution No.12 year 2006:

  1. Article 4 character (d)

“A child born by a legal marriage from a foreign citizen’s father and an Indonesian citizen’s mother”

  1. Article 21

“A child who has no attain yet the age of 18 (eighteen) or doesn’t getting married yet, has been and reside in Republic of Indonesia zone. From father or mother who acquire Republic of Indonesian citizenship is an Indonesian citizen automatically”

Therefore, Irfan Bachdim should choose his nationality before his match in Idonesian national team. Because, he was not 18 years yet before 11 August 2009.

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